Demystifying |

So many words, so little clarity

# The Us Ai Lexicon

The jargon batted around the Ai industry can be painful. Which is why we’ve created this handy quick reference guide.

### A

A/B testing

A statistical way of comparing two (or more) techniques, typically an incumbent against a new rival. A/B testing aims to determine not only which technique performs better but also to understand whether the difference is statistically significant. A/B testing usually considers only two techniques using one measurement, but it can be applied to any finite number of techniques and measures.

Accuracy

The fraction of predictions that a classification model got right.

Activation function

A function (for example, ReLU or sigmoid) that takes in the weighted sum of all of the inputs from the previous layer and then generates and passes an output value (typically nonlinear) to the next layer.

Active learning

A training approach in which the algorithm chooses some of the data it learns from. Active learning is particularly valuable when labeled examples are scarce or expensive to obtain. Instead of blindly seeking a diverse range of labeled examples, an active learning algorithm selectively seeks the particular range of examples it needs for learning.

A sophisticated gradient descent algorithm that rescales the gradients of each parameter, effectively giving each parameter an independent learning rate. For a full explanation, see this paper.

Automation bias

When a human decision maker favours recommendations made by an automated decision-making system over information made without automation, even when the automated decision-making system makes errors.

### B

Backpropagation

The primary algorithm for performing gradient descent on neural networks. First, the output values of each node are calculated (and cached) in a forward pass. Then, the partial derivative of the error with respect to each parameter is calculated in a backward pass through the graph.

Bag of words

A representation of the words in a phrase or passage, irrespective of order. For example, bag of words represents the following three phrases identically:

• the dog jumps
• jumps the dog
• dog jumps the

Each word is mapped to an index in a sparse vector, where the vector has an index for every word in the vocabulary. For example, the phrase the dog jumps is mapped into a feature vector with non-zero values at the three indices corresponding to the words the, dog, and jumps.

Batch

The set of examples used in one iteration (that is, one gradient update) of model training.

Batch Normalisation

Normalising the input or output of the activation functions in a hidden layer. Batch normalisation can provide the following benefits:

Make neural networks more stable by protecting against outlier weights.

• Enable higher learning rates.
• Reduce overfitting.

Batch Size

The number of examples in a batch. For example, the batch size of SGD is 1, while the batch size of a mini-batch is usually between 10 and 1000. Batch size is usually fixed during training and inference; however, TensorFlow does permit dynamic batch sizes.

Bayesian neural network

A probabilistic neural network that accounts for uncertainty in weights and outputs. A standard neural network regression model typically predicts a scalar value; for example, a model predicts a house price of 853,000. By contrast, a Bayesian neural network predicts a distribution of values; for example, a model predicts a house price of 853,000 with a standard deviation of 67,200. A Bayesian neural network relies on Bayes’ Theorem to calculate uncertainties in weights and predictions. A Bayesian neural network can be useful when it is important to quantify uncertainty, such as in models related to pharmaceuticals. Bayesian neural networks can also help prevent overfitting.

Bias (ethics/fairness)

1. Stereotyping, prejudice or favouritism towards some things, people, or groups over others. These biases can affect collection and interpretation of data, the design of a system, and how users interact with a system. Forms of this type of bias include:
• automation bias
• confirmation bias
• experimenter’s bias
• group attribution bias
• implicit bias
• in-group bias
• out-group homogeneity bias
2. Systematic error introduced by a sampling or reporting procedure. Forms of this type of bias include:
• coverage bias
• non-response bias
• participation bias
• reporting bias
• sampling bias
• selection bias

Not to be confused with the bias term in machine learning models or prediction bias

Binary classification

A type of classification task that outputs one of two mutually exclusive classes. For example, a machine learning model that evaluates email messages and outputs either “spam” or “not spam” is a binary classifier.

Boosting

A ML technique that iteratively combines a set of simple and not very accurate classifiers (referred to as “weak” classifiers) into a classifier with high accuracy (a “strong” classifier) by upweighting the examples that the model is currently misclassfying.

Expanding the shape of an operand in a matrix math operation to dimensions compatible for that operation. For instance, linear algebra requires that the two operands in a matrix addition operation must have the same dimensions. Consequently, you can’t add a matrix of shape (m, n) to a vector of length n. Broadcasting enables this operation by virtually expanding the vector of length n to a matrix of shape (m,n) by replicating the same values down each column.

Bucketing

Converting a (usually continuous) feature into multiple binary features called buckets or bins, typically based on value range. For example, instead of representing temperature as a single continuous floating-point feature, you could chop ranges of temperatures into discrete bins. Given temperature data sensitive to a tenth of a degree, all temperatures between 0.0 and 15.0 degrees could be put into one bin, 15.1 to 30.0 degrees could be a second bin, and 30.1 to 50.0 degrees could be a third bin.

### C

Calibration layer

A post-prediction adjustment, typically to account for prediction bias. The adjusted predictions and probabilities should match the distribution of an observed set of labels.

Candidate generation

The initial set of recommendations chosen by a recommendation system. For example, consider a bookstore that offers 100,000 titles. The candidate generation phase creates a much smaller list of suitable books for a particular user, say 500. But even 500 books is way too many to recommend to a user. Subsequent, more expensive, phases of a recommendation system (such as scoring and re-ranking) whittle down those 500 to a much smaller, more useful set of recommendations.

Candidate sampling

A training-time optimization in which a probability is calculated for all the positive labels, using, for example, softmax, but only for a random sample of negative labels. For example, if we have an example labeled beagle and dog candidate sampling computes the predicted probabilities and corresponding loss terms for the beagle and dog class outputs in addition to a random subset of the remaining classes (cat, lollipop, fence). The idea is that the negative classes can learn from less frequent negative reinforcement as long as positive classes always get proper positive reinforcement, and this is indeed observed empirically. The motivation for candidate sampling is a computational efficiency win from not computing predictions for all negatives.

Categorical data

Features having a discrete set of possible values. For example, consider a categorical feature named house style, which has a discrete set of three possible values: Tudor, ranch, colonial. By representing house style as categorical data, the model can learn the separate impacts of Tudor, ranch, and colonial on house price.

Sometimes, values in the discrete set are mutually exclusive, and only one value can be applied to a given example. For example, a car maker categorical feature would probably permit only a single value (Toyota) per example. Other times, more than one value may be applicable. A single car could be painted more than one different color, so a car color categorical feature would likely permit a single example to have multiple values (for example, red and white).

Categorical features are sometimes called discrete features.

Centroid

The center of a cluster as determined by a k-means or k-median algorithm. For instance, if k is 3, then the k-means or k-median algorithm finds 3 centroids.

Centroid-based clustering

A category of clustering algorithms that organizes data into nonhierarchical clusters. k-means is the most widely used centroid-based clustering algorithm.

Checkpoint

Data that captures the state of the variables of a model at a particular time. Checkpoints enable exporting model weights, as well as performing training across multiple sessions. Checkpoints also enable training to continue past errors (for example, job preemption). Note that the graph itself is not included in a checkpoint.

Class

One of a set of enumerated target values for a label. For example, in a binary classification model that detects spam, the two classes are spam and not spam. In a multi-class classification model that identifies dog breeds, the classes would be poodle, beagle, pug, and so on.

Classification model

A type of machine learning model for distinguishing among two or more discrete classes. For example, a natural language processing classification model could determine whether an input sentence was in French, Spanish, or Italian. Compare with regression model.

Classification threshold

A scalar-value criterion that is applied to a model’s predicted score in order to separate the positive class from the negative class. Used when mapping logistic regression results to binary classification. For example, consider a logistic regression model that determines the probability of a given email message being spam. If the classification threshold is 0.9, then logistic regression values above 0.9 are classified as spam and those below 0.9 are classified as not spam.

Class-imbalanced dataset

A binary classification problem in which the labels for the two classes have significantly different frequencies. For example, a disease dataset in which 0.0001 of examples have positive labels and 0.9999 have negative labels is a class-imbalanced problem, but a football game predictor in which 0.51 of examples label one team winning and 0.49 label the other team winning is not a class-imbalanced problem.

Clipping

A technique for handling outliers. Specifically, reducing feature values that are greater than a set maximum value down to that maximum value. Also, increasing feature values that are less than a specific minimum value up to that minimum value.

Clustering

Grouping related examples, particularly during unsupervised learning. Once all the examples are grouped, a human can optionally supply meaning to each cluster.

Many clustering algorithms exist. For example, the k-means algorithm clusters examples based on their proximity to a centroid, as in the following diagram:

A human researcher could then review the clusters and, for example, label cluster 1 as “dwarf trees” and cluster 2 as “full-size trees.”

As another example, consider a clustering algorithm based on an example’s distance from a center point.

Collaborative filtering

Making predictions about the interests of one user based on the interests of many other users. Collaborative filtering is often used in recommendation systems.

Continuous feature

A floating-point feature with an infinite range of possible values. Contrast with discrete feature.

Convenience sampling

Using a dataset not gathered scientifically in order to run quick experiments. Later on, it’s essential to switch to a scientifically gathered dataset.

Convergence

Informally, often refers to a state reached during training in which training loss and validation loss change very little or not at all with each iteration after a certain number of iterations. In other words, a model reaches convergence when additional training on the current data will not improve the model. In deep learning, loss values sometimes stay constant or nearly so for many iterations before finally descending, temporarily producing a false sense of convergence.

Convex function

A function in which the region above the graph of the function is a convex set. The prototypical convex function is shaped something like the letter U.

A typical convex function is shaped like the letter ‘U’.

Convex optimisation

The process of using mathematical techniques such as gradient descent to find the minimum of a convex function. A great deal of research in machine learning has focused on formulating various problems as convex optimization problems and in solving those problems more efficiently.

For complete details, see Boyd and Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization.

Convex set

A subset of Euclidean space such that a line drawn between any two points in the subset remains completely within the subset. For instance, the following two shapes are convex sets:

• A rectangle and a semi-ellipse are both convex sets.

By contrast, the following two shapes are not convex sets:

• A pie-chart with a missing slice and a firework are both nonconvex sets.

Convolution

In mathematics, casually speaking, a mixture of two functions. In machine learning, a convolution mixes the convolutional filter and the input matrix in order to train weights.

The term “convolution” in machine learning is often a shorthand way of referring to either convolutional operation or convolutional layer.

Without convolutions, a machine learning algorithm would have to learn a separate weight for every cell in a large tensor. For example, a machine learning algorithm training on 2K x 2K images would be forced to find 4M separate weights. Thanks to convolutions, a machine learning algorithm only has to find weights for every cell in the convolutional filter, dramatically reducing the memory needed to train the model. When the convolutional filter is applied, it is simply replicated across cells such that each is multiplied by the filter.

Convolutional filter

One of the two actors in a convolutional operation. (The other actor is a slice of an input matrix.) A convolutional filter is a matrix having the same rank as the input matrix, but a smaller shape. For example, given a 28×28 input matrix, the filter could be any 2D matrix smaller than 28×28.

In photographic manipulation, all the cells in a convolutional filter are typically set to a constant pattern of ones and zeroes. In machine learning, convolutional filters are typically seeded with random numbers and then the network trains the ideal values.

Convolutional layer

A layer of a deep neural network in which a convolutional filter passes along an input matrix.

Convolutional neural network

A neural network in which at least one layer is a convolutional layer. A typical convolutional neural network consists of some combination of the following layers:

• convolutional layers
• pooling layers
• dense layers

Convolutional neural networks have had great success in certain kinds of problems, such as image recognition.

Crash blossom

A sentence or phrase with an ambiguous meaning. Crash blossoms present a significant problem in natural language understanding. For example, the headline Red Tape Holds Up Skyscraper is a crash blossom because an NLU model could interpret the headline literally or figuratively.

Cross-entropy

A generalization of Log Loss to multi-class classification problems. Cross-entropy quantifies the difference between two probability distributions. See also perplexity.

Cross-validation

A mechanism for estimating how well a model will generalize to new data by testing the model against one or more non-overlapping data subsets withheld from the training set.

Custom Estimator

An Estimator that you write yourself by following these directions.

### D

Data analysis

Obtaining an understanding of data by considering samples, measurement, and visualization. Data analysis can be particularly useful when a dataset is first received, before one builds the first model. It is also crucial in understanding experiments and debugging problems with the system.

Data augmentation

Artificially boosting the range and number of training examples by transforming existing examples to create additional examples. For example, suppose images are one of your features, but your dataset doesn’t contain enough image examples for the model to learn useful associations. Ideally, you’d add enough labeled images to your dataset to enable your model to train properly. If that’s not possible, data augmentation can rotate, stretch, and reflect each image to produce many variants of the original picture, possibly yielding enough labeled data to enable excellent training.

DataFrame

A popular datatype for representing datasets in pandas. A DataFrame is analogous to a table. Each column of the DataFrame has a name (a header), and each row is identified by a number.

Decision boundary

The separator between classes learned by a model in a binary class or multi-class classification problems.

Decision tree

A model represented as a sequence of branching statements. For example, the following over-simplified decision tree branches a few times to predict the price of a house (in thousands of USD). According to this decision tree, a house larger than 160 square meters, having more than three bedrooms, and built less than 10 years ago would have a predicted price of 510 thousand USD.

A tree three-levels deep whose branches predict house prices.

Machine learning can generate deep decision trees.

Deep model

A type of neural network containing multiple hidden layers.

Dense feature

A feature in which most values are non-zero, typically a Tensor of floating-point values. Contrast with sparse feature.

Depth

The number of layers (including any embedding layers) in a neural network that learn weights. For example, a neural network with 5 hidden layers and 1 output layer has a depth of 6.

Depthwise separable convolutional neural network (sepCNN)

A convolutional neural network architecture based on Inception, but where Inception modules are replaced with depthwise separable convolutions. Also known as Xception.

A depthwise separable convolution (also abbreviated as separable convolution) factors a standard 3-D convolution into two separate convolution operations that are more computationally efficient: first, a depthwise convolution, with a depth of 1 (n ✕ n ✕ 1), and then second, a pointwise convolution, with length and width of 1 (1 ✕ 1 ✕ n).

Dimension reduction

Decreasing the number of dimensions used to represent a particular feature in a feature vector, typically by converting to an embedding.

Discriminative model

A model that predicts labels from a set of one or more features. More formally, discriminative models define the conditional probability of an output given the features and weights.

The vast majority of supervised learning models, including classification and regression models, are discriminative models.

Discriminator

A system that determines whether examples are real or fake.

The subsystem within a generative adversarial network that determines whether the examples created by the generator are real or fake.

Downsampling

Overloaded term that can mean either of the following:

• Reducing the amount of information in a feature in order to train a model more efficiently. For example, before training an image recognition model, downsampling high-resolution images to a lower-resolution format.
• Training on a disproportionately low percentage of over-represented class examples in order to improve model training on under-represented classes. For example, in a class-imbalanced dataset, models tend to learn a lot about the majority class and not enough about the minority class. Downsampling helps balance the amount of training on the majority and minority classes.

Dropout regularisation

A form of regularization useful in training neural networks. Dropout regularization works by removing a random selection of a fixed number of the units in a network layer for a single gradient step. The more units dropped out, the stronger the regularization. This is analogous to training the network to emulate an exponentially large ensemble of smaller networks. For full details, see Dropout: A Simple Way to Prevent Neural Networks from Overfitting.

Dynamic model

A model that is trained online in a continuously updating fashion. That is, data is continuously entering the model.